Soft Feather Breeds

JAVA

Java 2

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AREA of ORIGIN: Far East

CATEGORY:Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Brown. (Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION     

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

226

 

Cock

10

4.3kg

 

F

Hen

12

3.8kg

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.8kg

 

F

Pullet

16

3.4kg

 

E

 

BANTAMS

 

 

582

 

Cock

10

1,0kg

 

C

Hen

12

0,8kg

 

B

Cockerel

14

0,8kg

 

C

Pullet

16

0,6kg

 

B

 

HISTORY

The Java is a breed of chicken originating in the United States. Despite the breed’s name, which comes from the island of Java, it was developed in the U.S. from chickens of unknown Asian extraction. It is one of the oldest American chickens, forming the basis for many other breeds, but is critically endangered today. Javas are large birds with a sturdy appearance. They are hardy, and are well-suited for both meat and egg production, especially by small-scale farms, homesteads, and backyard keepers. Both varieties, the Black and the Mottled, were admitted to the American Poultry Standard in 1883 at a time when it enjoyed considerable popularity.

 

 

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SILKIE

Silkie 103 (Small)

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AREA OF ORIGIN: East Asia (China)

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted to Cream (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

 

 

Bearded

 

 

514

 

Unbearded

 

 

516

 

Cock

10

1.2kg min

 

D

Hen

12

800g min

 

D

Cockerel

14

900g min

 

D

Pullet

16

600g min

 

D

 

It is unknown exactly where or when fowl with their singular combination of attributes first appeared, but the most well documented point of origin as ancient China. Other places in Southeast Asia have been named as possibilities, such as India and Java. The earliest surviving written account of Silkies comes from Marco Polo, who wrote of a furry chicken in the 13th century, during his travels in Asia.  In 1599, Ulisse Aldrovandi, a writer and naturalist at the University of Bologna, Italy, published a comprehensive treatise on chickens which is still read and admired today. In it, he spoke on “wool-bearing chickens” and ones “clothed with hair like that of a black cat”.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth century the Silkie was brought to Europe and it reached the British Isles towards the middle of the nineteenth century. Here it was developed further using strains with stronger feathers but still having the silky and fluffy appearance.

The eggs of this small breed are relatively large (35-50g) being whitish cream to light brown. If a hen is kept from incubating when she becomes broody she should lay 90 to 120 eggs per annum. Silkies are very well known as broodies.

Although the Silkie is a small breed, it should not be judged as a Bantam. Larger individuals with the same good characteristics as small ones should thus be regarded as better. Cocks reach adulthood at about 27 weeks but in many individuals the combs are only fully developed at about 40-45 weeks. Hens can start laying at 23 weeks but usually do so at about 27 weeks. Silkies are usually very tame and not aggressive.

 

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Amended May 2013

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RHEINLANDER

 

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COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Germany.

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-Sitters).

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

279

 

Cock

10

2.0 – 2.75kg

 

D

Hen

12

1.75 – 2.5kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.0 – 2.75kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1.75 – 2.5kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

507

 

Cock

10

1.0 – 1.1kg

 

C

Hen

12

0.8 – 0.9kg

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.0 – 1.1kg

 

C

Pullet

16

0.8 – 0.9kg

 

B

 

HISTORY

The Rheinlander was developed from an ancient, unimproved country fowl breed that had been around for centuries in the German Eiffel district. During more or less the same period, the Alsatian Fowl came about in the Alsace. The breeds are very similar and it is not clear which breed has the oldest rights. Due to being crossed with other old country fowl breeds, both breeds have developed into productive, healthy and strong layers. At the beginning of the last century, they become recognized. The Rheinlander chicken comes from Germany. This is a medium breed with dual purpose potentials; sporting a deep chest with wide back creating a rectangular physical structure. Mainly an exhibition breed today but originally prized for egg-laying. This German breed was originated in the 1890s by a Dr Hans Rudolf von Langen. He crossed Italian chickens with birds from the neighbourhood of Eifel, Germany. In 1908, these new Rheinlander chickens won the first German egg-laying competition. They lay a 55 gram white egg and the hen will produce around 200 eggs in her first year. Perfected in several colours, black with green sheen is most common and most popular with slate blue to black legs complimenting, and deep brown eyes. The Rheinlander is an elegant and showy breed; the roosters with a plenteous spray of curved tail feathers carried high and hens with a full body lending its self to their maintained reputation as good layers. The Bantam variety was established in 1921.

  

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LEGHORN

 

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COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Livorno/Lombardy, Italy.

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-Sitters).

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

234

 

Cock

10

3.5kg

 

E

Hen

12

3.0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.0kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2.5kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

480

 

Cock

10

900g

 

C

Hen

12

800g

 

B

Cockerel

14

900g

 

C

Pullet

16

800g

 

B

 

The origins of the Leghorn are not clear; it appears to derive from light breeds originating in rural Tuscany. The name comes from Leghorn, the traditional Anglicisation of Livorno, the Tuscan port from which the first birds were exported to North America.The date of the first exports is variously reported as 1828,about 1830 and 1852. Initially called “Italians’, they were first referred to as “leghorns” in 1865, in Worcester, Massachusetts. The breed was included in the American Standard of Perfection in 1874, with three colours: black, white and brown (light and dark). Rose comb light and dark brown were added in 1883, and rose comb white in 1886. Single comb buff and silver followed in 1894, and red, black-tailed red, and Columbian in 1929. In 1981 rose comb black, buff, silver, and golden duckwing were added. The breed was first introduced to Britain from the United States in 1870, and from there re-exported to Italy.White Leghorns that had won first prize at the 1868 New York show were imported to Britain in 1870, and brown Leghorns from 1872. Pyle Leghorns were first bred in Britain in the 1880s; gold and silver duckwings originated there a few years later, from crosses with Japanese Phoenix or Yokohama birds. Buff Leghorns were first seen in Denmark in 1885, and in England in 1888.Over the years the Leghorn was developed and bred to suit South African conditions and requirements. The Leghorn in South Africa has evolved out of importations principally from England, Denmark, Australia, New Zealand and in later years from the United States of America and Germany (Italian).

 

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FAVEROLLES

 

 

 

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COUNTRY ORIGIN: France

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION              

CODE

 

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

110

 

Cock

10

4.0kg

 

G

Hen

12

3.5kg

 

F

Cockerel

14

3.5kg

 

G

Pullet

16

3.0kg

 

F

BANTAMS

 

 

460

 

Cock

10

1.7 maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1,5 maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.7 maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1,5 maximum

 

C

 

Originated in the village of Faverolle, in Northern France, during the second half of the nineteenth century. This breed was created for its dual purpose qualities. Its make‑up includes such breeds as the Dorking, Houdan and Cochin, Light Brahma, Polish, Crevecoeur, and the European Five Toed Fowl. Imported into Great Britain in 1886 and to Germany a decade later. Both French and German varieties were imported into South Africa, but now it appears that the German variety (Lachshuhn) dominates our show benches. Judges of this breed should be aware of both breed directions when judging this breed.

  

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AUSTRALORP

 

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COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN:

The Black ‑ Australia

The White ‑ South Africa

The Golden ‑ South Africa

The Wheaten Laced ‑ South Africa

The Blue ‑ South Africa

The Blue Splash – Splash

CATEGORY: Soft Feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION      

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy Breed

 

 

102

 

Cock

10

5.0kg

 

F

Hen

12

4.0kg

 

E

Cockerel

14

4.0kg

 

F

Pullet

16

3.0kg

 

E

 

BANTAMS

 

 

442

 

Cock

10

1,7kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1,5kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1,7kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1,5kg maximum

 

B

 

HISTORY

The Australorp is a production‑bred Australian Black Orpington. The original Black Orpington was produced by William Cook of England and later specimens of this breed were exported to Australia where it was converted, by selective breeding, from a purely exhibition breed to a highly popular commercial one. The Black Australorp in South Africa all originate from importations from Australia roundabout 1910.  South Africa holds the distinction of having originated all the other colour varieties of Australorps. The White Australorp originated from sports (mutations) from the Blacks.  They were admitted to the South African standards in 1939 on applications from two breeders, the late Mr. N.H. Addison of Middelburg, Cape, and the late Mr. Dan Jacobs of Alberton. The Golden Australorp was perfected by the late Prof. A.M. Gericke at the Pretoria University, and admitted to the South African standards in 1949. The Wheaten Laced were produced from sports bred from pure Australorps by Mrs. Myrtle Phillips of Tarkastad and were admitted to the South African standards in 1954. The Blue was perfected by Mr. A.A. Luckhoff of Vereeniging after years of selection from Blue individuals originating from mating’s of Black and White Australorp.

 

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ARAUCANA

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:Chile

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Blue or green (Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

260

 

Cock

10

3.0kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.5kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

3.0kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.5kg

 

C              

 

BANTAMS

 

 

544

 

Cock

10

850g

 

C

Hen

12

750g

 

B

Cockerel

14

850g

 

C

Pullet

16

750g

 

B

 

When the Spaniards arrived in South America, bringing with them the light Mediterranean breeds, they found that the indigenous Indians had domestic fowls which soon crossbred with the incomers. Notable for their fierce resistance to the Spaniards however, were the Indians of the Arauca province of northern Chile who were never conquered. The name Araucana for the breed is derived therefore from that part of the world where the South American and European fowls had the least opportunity to interbreed.

The Araucana breed standard in the British Isles is generally as envisaged by George Malcolm who created the true-breeding lavender Araucana, amongst other colours, in Scotland during the 1930s. Araucanas are layers of strong-shelled eggs, blue or green eggs having been reported from South America from the mid-sixteenth century onwards. These are unique in that their colour permeates throughout the shell.

The tufted gene is a lethal gene, meaning that if a chick receives two copies of the gene, it will die in the shell before hatching. Therefore, it is impossible to hatch only tufted Araucanas, since any living bird has only one copy of the gene. If you mate tufted to tufted, you will get 1/2 tufted, 1/4 clean faced, and 1/4 embryos dead in the shell. If you mate tufted to clean-faced, you will get 1/2 tufted and 1/2 clean-faced, but more living birds. Bottom line: if half of your hatchlings are tufted, consider yourself very lucky.

When the Araucana was first introduced to breeders worldwide in the mid-20th century, the genetics that produced tufts were recognized to also cause chick mortality.Two copies of the gene cause nearly 100% mortality shortly before hatching. The tufted gene is dominant, however. Because no living Araucana possesses two copies of the tufted gene, breeding any two tufted birds leads to half of the resulting brood being tufted with one copy of the gene, a quarter being clean-faced with no copy of the gene, and a quarter of the brood dead in the shell, having received two copies of the gene.In the decades to follow, most breeders took one of two tacks: either to preserve the old style of bird, or to breed out the tufts while increasing productivity.

Because the tufted gene is lethal, as described above, it is good to have non-tufted birds in the breeding pen. If only tufted birds are bred, quite a few chickens will die in the shell before they hatch. If tufted birds are bred with non-tufted birds, more eggs will hatch and with a bigger hatch of tufted offspring.

The gene for tufts has “variable penetrance” meaning that the type and degree of tuftedness in tufted birds will vary greatly. Some will have one tuft, some will have two, some will have even tufts and some will have unbalanced tufts. But every tufted bird, no matter how their tufts look, carries the tufted gene. A one-tufted bird may produce plenty of two-tufted offspring, and vice versa.

In 1976, the first standards for the breed were accepted by the APA, conforming to the traditional style.This was followed, in 1984, by a second standard for the “improved” variety.

The gene for blue eggs is dominant, so the term “Easter Egger” is used to describe birds of mixed breeding that produce such eggs. Unfortunately, these mixed breeds are often incorrectly labelled as Araucanas or Ameraucanas, and marketed to backyard poultry hobbyists who are not aware of the difference.

In short, the differences are as follows:

  • USA and Canada Araucana – tufts (lethal allele), rumpless, blue eggs, willow legs and yellow skin (with exceptions)
  • US Ameraucana – beards and muffs (NO lethal gene), with tail feathers, blue eggs, slate legs and white skin
  • British, Irish, New Zealand, Asian, Japanese, Russian, Dutch, French, Spanish, Bellarus, Ukrainian, Scandinavian, Argentinian, Chilean, South African, Pacific Islands, Brazilian, Mexican, Peruvian, Arabic Nations, Indian, Pakistan, Nepalese and Australian Araucana – beards, muffs and crest, with tail feathers, blue eggs, slate or olive/willow legs and grey/white skin
  • Easter Egger – variable traits

 

 

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ORPINGTON

 

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COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Great Britain

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Brown (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy Breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

118

 

Cock

10

5.5kg

 

F

Hen

12

4.0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

4.5kg

 

F

Pullet

16

3.5kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

494

 

Cock

10

1.7kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1.5kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.7kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1.5kg maximum

 

C

 

The Orpington: William Cook established a poultry business in 1869 at St Mary Cray, a village near the town of Orpington in Kent. Here he bred various poultry, made hen houses, and stocked all the necessary appliances and equipment to sell to his main intended customers, the many thousands of domestic poultry keepers in London and the surrounding suburban towns. He launched his ‘Black Orpington’ in 1886, a breed he made from a mix of Black Minorca, Black Plymouth Rock, and Black Langshan. His first Black Orpingtons were relatively tight feathered, and looked like today’s Australorps. These were followed by White Orpingtons in 1889, made from a different mix of breeds, and which were also much tighter feathered, and with a longer tail than the White Orpingtons of today.

The first Orpingtons, which looked more like the Orpingtons we find today, were made shortly afterwards, in the early 1890s, by Joseph Partington, a fancier in the north-west of England, at Lytham, Lancashire. He realised that most show judges tended to give top prizes to the biggest birds in a class, so he started to make a separate strain, initially by Black Cochin x Black Langshan matings, followed by selective breeding to get rid of the shank and foot feathering. His assessment of show judges was correct, and his birds were soon beating Cook’s strain around the shows, so other fanciers either bought birds from Partington, or made their own in a similar way. Although Cook complained about the way ’his’ breed had been changed by other people, he realised he couldn’t stop the popular trend, and when Partington died in 1901, Cook bought birds at the dispersal auction. 

Partington, and the other exhibitors and judges who supported the big, fluffy, but less productive type Orpingtons have often been criticised over the past century or so by poultry writers for ’ruining’ a previously good utility breed. While there is certainly some truth in this attitude, it ignores the economic and social realities affecting the UK poultry scene before things were forced to change by greater events in 1914. Before 1914 there was no real commercial poultry industry in the UK. Table bird and eating egg production was hard work for little profit. If any ’big money’ could be made at all in any activity concerning poultry, it was in, or connected to, the show halls. Show winners sold for potentially life changing sums, including the teams of Black Orpingtons sold by Joseph Partington the first few times he exhibited them, most going for £30 each. Remember, this was at a time when typical manual labourers earned about £1 per week in wages! This is why so many people bred exhibition poultry, that is, almost everyone who had a back garden or could rent an allotment (a council-owned garden plot). If they bred a show winner they could sell it for the equivalent of a few months’ wages, and in the meantime, they could still sell any bird bred, which was not good enough to show or sell as potential  breeding stock, for at least ’layer prices’.

Cook’s next variety was the Buff Orpington, made from crosses of Buff Cochins with other breeds. They quickly became popular, and any similar looking chickens were hastily renamed as a ’Buff Orpington’, and offered for sale at double the previous price, including the entire population of an older localised breed, the Lincolnshire Buff, which effectively went extinct within a few months.

Two more colour varieties of Orpingtons were made in William Cook’s lifetime: Jubilee Orpingtons in 1897 and Spangled Orpingtons in 1899. Both went extinct during the 1920s and ’30s, but have been remade since the 1960s. 

William Cook died in 1904, when only 55 years old. There had been family arguments, which resulted in several separate businesses being established after his death. Cook’s eldest daughter, Elizabeth Jane Cook, inherited the original company at St Mary Cray, which she continued to run under the name ’W. Cook & Sons’ until she closed it down in 1934, apparently being unable or unwilling to adapt to the then rapidly changing poultry industry. Cook’s eldest son, William Henry, had established (before the family arguments)  a branch of the family business at Scotch Plains, New Jersey, in America, which was later run by youngest son Percy Cook, after he had been in the Royal Navy for some years. William Henry Cook returned to the UK, and set up a separate business at Tubbenden Lane, Orpington, which lasted until about 1948. The second son, Albert Loxley Cook set up and managed a South African branch, with a sales office at Marshall Square West, Johannesburg, and farms at Syferfontein, near Johannesburg, and Stamford Hill, Durban, Natal. Cook’s younger daughter (name not found) married Arthur C. Gilbert, who had a poultry farm at Wilmington, fairly near St Mary Cray and Orpington.

Arthur seems to have remained on friendly terms with all members of the otherwise feuding Cook family.

The other two significant varieties of Orpingtons were the Blue and the Cuckoo, both of which were initially made by Arthur Gilbert and launched in 1907.

Orpington bantams were not very good, or very popular until after about 1950, although there had been much earlier attempts, those known being Buffs by John Wharton shown at Carlisle in the north of England in 1899, and Blacks and Whites, shown by Emil Khn at Leipzig, Germany, in 1912. In the modern era, the correct size of Orpington bantams has often been a controversial topic, with different opinions existing regarding the best compromise between birds both type enough to be an ‘Orpington’ and small enough to be a ’Bantam’. 

 

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Amended June 2012

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DORKING

 

 

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COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Great Britain

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

108

 

Cock

10

5.0kg

 

E

Hen

12

4.0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

4.0kg

 

E

Pullet

16

3.5kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

458

 

Cock

10

1.5kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1.3kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.5kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1.3kg maximum

 

B

 

Its purely British ancestry makes the Dorking one of the oldest of domesticated fowls in lineage. A Roman writer, who died in A.D. 47, described birds of Dorking type with five toes, and no doubt such birds were found in England by the Romans during the invasion under Julius Caesar (55 B.C.). By judicious crossings, and by careful selection, the Darking or Dorking breed was established.

Dorkings were mentioned occasionally over the intervening centuries, for example being sold at Dorking market in 1683 and 1824, but as far as present day fanciers are concerned, the story only picks up again at about 1850, when poultry shows started, which required standardised plumage colours and patterns for exhibitors and judges to agree upon. Previously, a few farmers had bred uniformly coloured flocks so their birds would be identifiable locally in case of theft. White and Cuckoo Dorkings were probably established for this reason, and ‘Old Red and Tawnies’ were known and named, along with ‘Japans’, black Dorkings with gold or silver hackles. ‘Red Speckles’ were also known, and could be either marked like present day Spangled O.E.G. or Speckled Sussex. Indeed, Lewis Wright noted that before 1850 the breast feathering of almost all Dorking cocks (except Cuckoos and Whites) had white speckles.

Wright also wrote at length about John Douglas, who established a consistent coloured strain of Dark Dorking, starting in 1857 when he crossed his variable coloured Dorking hens with a cock of unknown ancestry he had imported from India, which was an almost perfect exhibition Dark Dorking cock in terms of colour, size and type, just lacking the 5th toe, which was rectified after a few years of selective breeding. Silver Grey Dorkings were stabilised with their present pattern, particularly in respect of the salmon breast on hens, by crosses with Lord Hill’s strain of Silver Duckwing O.E.G., which were recorded as being used by some Dorking men, including Oswald Cresswell of Hereford, who tried this cross in 1868.

Dorkings remained a popular exhibition and practical table breed until the outbreak of war in 1914, and then declined. They only survived through to the present day because of the dedication of a few breeders, until a new generation of poultry breed enthusiasts appeared in the 1970s. The bantam version of the breed has appeared sporadically since the 1890s, but has never been very popular, indeed there are probably more of them, and in more colour varieties, now in 2012 (in the UK at least) than at any time in the past.

  

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Amended June 2012

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MINORCA

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ORIGIN: Ancestral stock from Spain (Island of Minorca), developed into a standard breed in England.

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

238

 

Cock

10

3.5kg

 

E

Hen

12

3.0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.0kg

 

E

Pullet

16

3.0kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

488

 

Cock

10

1000g

 

C

Hen

12

900g

 

B

Cockerel

14

1000g

 

C

Pullet

16

900g

 

B

The fowls which were imported to England from Spain in the year 1780 to 1820 were rather small and with much smaller ear lobes than the later standard Minorcas. They remained virtually unchanged for about a century, as valued layers of extra-large chalk-white eggs, until the competitive atmosphere of the British poultry show scene prompted fanciers to try some crosses to improve their chances of success in the 1880’s. Indeed, until about 1870 Minorcas were only kept in the south-west of England by breeders that were former Spanish and French prisoners of war, who decided to settle here when released from captivity as part of various colonial wars, as well as the 1807-1812 Peninsular War. Minorcas were virtually unknown north of Gloucestershire or east of Wiltshire.

The first series of crosses were made with White-faced Spanish, which had long been a very popular breed in the Bristol area. This was obviously done to increase lobe size, but the breed obviously required subsequent back-crosses to restore the red face. Minorcas were exported to the US and Canada in about 1885, and fanciers in those countries have continued with the type fashionable then, with smaller lobes and a bigger, more fanned tail, than has since become the norm in the UK, Germany, and most other countries. The second series of crosses was with large black breeds such as Langshans and Orpingtons, and was done by fanciers in the north of England. By 1890 Minorcas of large size and with big lobes, were being shown all over the UK, indicating that the North Country and Bristol breeders had exchanged stock.

They became a very popular breed from about 1900 until 1930, with several regional Minorca clubs in addition to the main UK Minorca Club formed in 1888. There was even a Utility Minorca Club formed in 1925 to promote the smaller, more productive type. This was followed by a gradual decline in popularity, with amalgamations of all those clubs to a single UK Minorca Club in 1962.

Black has always been the main colour variety of Minorcas, but other colours do, or did, exist. Whites have been known at least as far back as the 1880s, but have never been popular. This is probably because competitive exhibitors, who wanted something similar, regarded the White Leghorn classes as ‘the only game in town’. Buff Minorcas were only ever bred in the US, and were mainly bred and promoted by the Lindgren Brothers of California, circa 1905-25. A barred variety was made in Germany, but was never accepted as a Minorca. This variety was standardised as a separate breed, the ‘Deutsche Sperber’, where they still exist, but are very rare. Blue Minorcas were known in Devon, England as far back as 1890, but were not widely bred until promoted by another Devon fancier, Herbert Whitley in the 1920s. He had an extensive collection of poultry breeds and other livestock, concentrating in ‘Blue’ varieties in all of them. A classic English eccentric! Rose-combed Black Minorcas were made in both the UK and US by crossing with Black Hamburghs, but few have been seen since 1940.

Minorca Bantams were first seen in about 1900, but remained very rare until the 1920-1940 period. It can be a problem, but a fascinating problem for enthusiasts, to combine Minorca characteristics such as the long back, strong boned shanks, and relatively large lobes and comb, on a bird small enough to be a satisfactory ‘Bantam’. This conundrum may have limited their popularity, along with the difficulties of keeping the lobes perfectly smooth and white, and the face red. Judges appreciate the skill required, so a good Minorca Bantam has an excellent chance of going on to win top show awards over the other ‘Best of Breeds’.

It can be reliably stated that South African stock originally came from England.

The Pile variety was bred by the late Mr. Eustace Schoultz from Pretoria. He did this by crossing ‘sports’ from black Minorcas(black with some red on the back and shoulders) with pure white Minorcas. Over a few years and with careful selection, he succeeded to establish the Piles.

   

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Amended June 2012
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TRANSYLVANIAN NAKED NECK

 

 

___________________________________________________________________________

Country of Origin: Hungary

Category: Soft feather

Egg Colour: Brown (Sitters)

 

CLASIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

252

 

Cock

10

3.5kg

 

E

Hen

12

3.0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.5kg

 

E

Pullet

16

3.0kg

 

D

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

524

 

Cock

10

1.7 maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1.5 maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.7 maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1.5 maximum

 

B


Records of Naked Neck chickens have been found in areas as far apart as central Europe and Malaysia. According to archaeologists the Naked Neck breed originated in Malaysia from where it spread all over the world. It is therefore possible that the Dutch East India Company introduced Naked Necks to South Africa from Malaysia in the 17th century and they are thus considered an indigenous breed by SA’s Agricultural Research Council. Naked necked chickens came to Europe from imported Madagascan Naked Necked Game, which were then crossed with local chickens. These chickens had a variety of colour patterns. Naked necked chickens, with the amount of neck feathers differing from region to region, are seen all around the Mediterranean region and up into the Balkans.
Transylvania, a province of Romania since 1918, but formerly a part of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, is their nominal place of origin. Austrian and German fanciers made the standard version of the breed, specifying body size and shape, a single comb and a completely bare neck.
Their unusual appearance limits their popularity, but they have always attracted a few fanciers. The first records found so far of them appearing at poultry shows were in Newmarket, England in 1874, and Vienna, Austria in 1875, and they have usually appeared in limited numbers per show since then. However, there were enough people who did like them to give an impressive display of 110 large Naked Necks at the 1907 Leipzig Show.
The first known Transylvanian Naked Neck bantams were shown by Karl Huth at the 1898 German National Show at Frankfurt. It is believed the old strains died out during the two world wars, and new strains were remade by fanciers in both the DDR and FDR (East and West Germany) in the 1950s.
There are two types of Naked Necks, one of which is purebred and has a completely naked neck and the other, which is not purebred, has a tassel on the front part of the neck. If two tasselled birds are mated, one quarter of the offspring would have totally naked necks, half of them would have tassels and the remaining quarter would be fully feathered.
In France the Naked Neck gene is used in commercial production as they can produce the same body weight with less food and there are 30% less feathers to remove than fully feathered birds in the slaughter line and therefore they pass through much faster. They are also more heat tolerant.

 

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BANTAMS

The bantams should be miniatures of their large fowl counterparts and the same Standard in all respects is applicable.

 

 


__________________________________________________________________________________

Amended May 2012

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DOMINIQUE

___________________________________________________________________________________

AREA OF ORIGIN: America

CLASSIFICATION: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Brown


CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

268

 

Cock

10

3.2kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.3kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.7kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1.8kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

456

 

Cock

10

950g

 

C

Hen

12

850g

 

B

Cockerel

14

950g

 

C

Pullet

16

850g

 

B

 

This is perhaps the oldest of the distinctive American Breeds, being mentioned in the earliest poultry books as an indigenous and valued layer, very hardy and good for the table.

Despite extensive research by members of The Dominique Club of America, the origin of Dominiques, as a distinct breed from the general poultry population in the late eighteenth century, remains unknown. There may have been two separate origins. 1.) There was an early Dominique Club at Salem, Massachusetts circa 1827, which presumably held informal shows of a similar type to those held then in England for Sebright Bantams, Spanish, Yorkshire Pheasants and Lancashire Moonies (both Hamburgh ancestors). As many of the people in Salem were of British origin, and tending towards puritanism, imported Scots Grey fowls probably played a part in developing their version of Dominiques. 2.) In the very different popular culture of the Southern states, the name ‘Dominique’ was applied to Game fowl of Barred, Cuckoo or Crele plumage colour varieties in 1830. Therefore one can assume that the Southern strains of the Dominique breed were crosses between these varieties of Game fowl crossed with general farm hens.

Dominiques were exhibited by only four people, when the first general poultry show was held in the US on 15-16 November 1849 in Boston, Massachusetts. They were seen at shows in Britain as early as 1870. However, the breed gradually declined from say, 1927 and they only survived because of the determination of three fanciers. In 1970, when a new generation of enthusiasts came along, the breed’s popularity increased again. The only other country where Dominiques have been bred for a long time and in reasonable numbers is Germany.
At the present time (2012) a neutral observer might think US strains of Dominiques are ‘Wyandotty’, meaning large and a bit heavy and lacking in length of tail. On the other hand, German ‘Dominikaners’ have perhaps gone too far the other way. They tend to be too small, and although they have nice long tails, the tail is long, straight, and carried low, similar too Sumatras. Since 2000, some British fanciers have imported both types and crossed them, resulting in some very fine birds of medium size, with a large, high and fanned tail – just like the old 19th century pictures.

Dominique Bantams have been bred several times by American, British and German fanciers, but they still remain rare everywhere.

 

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Amended May 2012
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SUSSEX

 

__________________________________________________________________________

Country of Origin: Britain

Category: Soft feather

Egg Colour: Tinted (Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

124

 

Cock

10

4.0kg

 

F

Hen

12

3.0kg

 

E

Cockerel

14

4.0kg

 

F

Pullet

16

3.0kg

 

E

 

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

520

 

Cock

10

1.7 maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1.5 maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.7 maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1.5 maximum

 

B

 

 

Table chicken producers in the counties of Kent, Sussex and Surrey have supplied the London markets for centuries. Some used the historic Dorking breed, but many, probably most, bred less distinctive looking fowls, which were not generally recognized as a distinct breed until comparatively recently. These birds were relatively uniform in some respects, being large, with a long back, and having white skin and flesh, which has long been the preference of English consumers. Plumage colours and patterns varied, although many farmers selected for a uniform colour so that their birds were identifiable locally if stolen.
When poultry shows started in the mid-nineteenth century there was an incentive to ‘officially’ name and standardize breeds, with the first known entry of ‘Sussex Fowls’ at the 1890 Lewes Show. Progress was delayed until 1903, when several meetings were held at the Elephant and Castle Hotel at Lewes (still open in 2012) to form the Sussex Poultry Club and produce a breed standard. Three colour varieties were recognized initially, Light, Speckled and ‘Red or Brown’, the latter being a pragmatic acceptance of the new breed’s colour variability.
Having a variable ‘Red or Brown’ variety was bound to cause confusion and arguments among exhibitors and judges, so in 1906 the Club decided to recognize Reds only, possibly favoured because of local sentiment from the similar colour of the Sussex cattle breed. Mr. John T. Ade and others were not going to give up their Brown Sussex so easily, and appealed the decision in 1909, were refused, and so set up a separate Brown Sussex Club. This lasted until 1913, when the main Sussex Club relented, and accepted Browns, rendering the separate club redundant. The same scenario happened when Buff Sussex were created and refused standardization by the main club in 1921, resulting in a separate Buff Sussex Club until accepted in 1926.
Other colour varieties standardized in the UK are White (circa 1926), Silver (1948), and Coronation, which are like Light Sussex, but with blue instead of black markings. They were made in the 1930s, and named in 1936 to commemorate the coronation of King Edward VIII, which, of course, never happened because he abdicated. Coronation Sussex didn’t really ‘happen’ then either, and remade strains are a very recent addition to British Poultry Standards.
The first Light Sussex bantams were made by Mr. Fred Smalley, who worked for Poultry World magazine and was manager of the Olympia Poultry Show, in his modest garden at 4 Blackheath Park, London, SE3. He started making them about 1916, and began exhibiting them in 1920. Other fanciers made Speckled and White Sussex bantams, both first exhibited in 1927. Brown, Red and Silver Sussex bantams appeared at UK shows in the early 1950s, and Coronation Sussex bantams about 1980, although there may have been earlier attempts.
On the commercial poultry farming side, Light Sussex hens were widely used by UK farmers in a sex-linked mating with Rhode Island Red cocks, from the 1920s, when the principle of sex-linkage was discovered, until the early 1960s, when the poultry industry switched to hybrids. In the decades before the modern egg and broiler industries existed, the crossbred ‘gold’ pullets were the most common layers, and the ‘silver’ cockerels reared as table birds. Some strains of ‘Utility Light Sussex’ were developed in the 1930s and 1950s for smaller body size, to produce better ‘RIR x LS’ laying pullets.

 

 

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Amended May 2012

WYANDOTTE

 

__________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: America

CATEGORY: Heavy breed: soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted to brown (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION   

CODE

 

MASSES

 

BREED CODE

 

RING SIZES

LARGE

 

 

128

 

Cock

10

4.0kg minimum

 

F

Hen

12

3.0kg minimum

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.5kg minimum

 

F

Pullet

16

2.5kg minimum

 

E

 

BANTAMS

 

 

532

 

Cock

10

1,7kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1,5kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1,7kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1,5kg maximum

 

C

 

 

During the 1860′s and 1870′s several American poultry breeders were independently trying to make a practical utility fowl with the attractive laced plumage pattern then only seen on Sebright Bantams or exotic crested Polish. Each breeder had invented a different name, some were rose combed, others pea combed, and some had feathered shanks and feet. Eventually these details and a name was agreed, and Silver Laced Wyandottes were recognised by the American Poultry Association (A.P.A.) in 1883. Other breeders, notably Joseph McKeen in Wisconsin, were working on Gold Laced, which were accepted by the A.P.A. in 1888. Blue Laced and Buff Laced followed in the 1890s, but didn’t attract much interest in the US, however they were better received by fanciers in the UK and Germany.
White and Black chicks appeared in hatches of Silver Laced, and after some selective breeding to purify plumage colour, Whites were accepted by the A.P.A. in 1888, Blacks in 1893. Blacks were also taken up more enthusiastically by British and German breeders than those in America, probably because these countries had more urban poultry keepers, and black chickens didn’t show the dirt in city yards in the air polluted age of coal and steam.
Partridge and Silver Pencilled Wyandottes were made by several matings, including crossing prototype Gold Laced Wyandottes with Partridge Cochins, and Silver Laced Wyandottes with Dark Brahmas. Two groups of fanciers were initially working independently on both varieties, with Mr McKeen, and E.O.Theim being in one group; and G.H. Brackenbury and Ezra Cornell, both in New York State, being the other. Partridge Wyandottes were accepted by the A.P.A. in 1901, Silver Pencilled in 1902. Mr Theim also made the first Buff Wyandottes, starting from matings of prototype Gold Laced and Partridge Wyandottes with Buff Cochins.
Columbian Wyandottes were so named because they were first exhibited at the Columbian Exposition or World Trade Fair in Chicago in 1893, held to commemorate the 400th Anniversary of the Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Chicks from a White Wyandotte x Barred Plymouth Rock mating were then bred with Light Brahmas to improve markings.
Wyandotte Bantams were first made in England by J.F. Entwisle, the son of famous bantam fancier W.F. Entwisle, in the 1890s. He made Partridge and Silver Pencilled varieties first, followed by Whites, Blacks and Columbians.
Other British, American and German fanciers were soon, each independently, making the full range of Wyandotte varieties between them in miniature form.
They generally started by breeding some suitable crossbred bantams with rounded body shape and a rough approximation of the desired colour/pattern, followed by matings of these with undersized examples of large Wyandottes of whichever variety was applicable for each breeding project.

 

 

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Amended May 2012


ANDALUSIAN

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN: Ancestral stock from Spain and developed into a standard breed in England.
CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

KG

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

200

 

Cock

10

3.5kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.5kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

3.5kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.5kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

542

 

Cock

10

700g

 

C

Hen

12

600g

 

B

Cockerel

14

700g

 

C

Pullet

16

600g

 

B

 

Leonard Barber is believed to be the first importer of this breed from the region of Andalucia, Spain in 1846-1847, but these had an assortment of plumage colours. The standard Blue Andalusian, with its characteristic sharp lacing, was developed in England. The two leading breeders, who started this process in the 1850′s, were John Taylor of Shepard’s Bush, London, and Mr. Coles of Fareham, Hampshire. It took several decades of selective breeding by a succession of fanciers before birds with the perfect colour and lacing depicted by Victorian artists became a reality. Andalusian bantams first appeared in the 1880′s.
In Spain the blue laced Andalusian is called ‘Gallina Andaluza Britanica’ (British Andalusian), and they have standardised the original local form as a separate breed, ‘Gallina Andaluza Espanola’ (Spanish Andalusian). It is standardised in several colour varieties in addition to blue.

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Amended May 2012

 


ANCONA

 

 

 __________________________________________________________________

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN: Ancestral stock from Italy developed into a standard breed in England.

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White. (Non-Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

324

 

Cock

10

3.0kg

 

E

Hen

12

2.5kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

2.5kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2.0kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

440

 

Cock

10

700g

 

C

Hen

12

600g

 

B

Cockerel

14

700g

 

C

Pullet

16

600g

 

B

 

 

The breed takes its name from the port city of Ancona on the east coast of Italy, where the ancestors of the eventual standard breed originated. These were of fairly uniform type and size, but of varied plumage colours and patterns, many, but not all, with white markings of some kind. John Taylor, from the Shepherd’s Bush area of London, was the first recorded English importer in about 1850, and it was he who set the idea of Anconas being a black breed with white spots. However, the markings remained irregular until refined by later breeders, notably Mr Geffcken of Southampton in the 1880s, and Mrs Bourley, from a village near Birmingham, in the 1890s. Only then were they generally considered uniform enough to be ‘a proper breed’, and exported around the world from the UK. They are excellent egg layers, and obviously related to the Leghorn breed, which share a similar history. Leghorns were exported from the west coast port city of Livorno and developed into a standard breed in the USA.

 

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Amended May 2012


ABOUT CHICKENS (SF)

 

LARGE AND BANTAM BREEDS

 

( Gallus gallus, SUBSPECIE Domestica)

 

 

Fowls belong to the species Gallus gallus. The modern domesticated fowl descends from the wild jungle fowl of India (Bankiva).

 

 

The Jungle Fowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________

The earliest reference to domesticated fowl is found in Chinese writings from the time of Emperor Fu-Hsi, 3341 to 3227 BC. On his voyage around the southern tip of Africa in 1497, the navigator, Vasco da Gama, already found fowl with the indigenous people in Natal. Marco Polo, in his writings, made mention of the fowl with “cat like feathers” (Silkies) that he found in China.

 

There are hundreds of breeds and varieties that have been developed over many years in most parts of the world. They vary in size from the massive Jersey Giants of America to the tiniest ornate little bantam.

 

Not only are these breeds kept for pleasure and exhibition purposes, but through careful selection and development, many modern strains of fowl have been developed to provide a very vital form of protein in the form of eggs and meat.

 

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CAMPINE

 

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Belgium

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

Large 332

 

Cock

10

2.70kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.25kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.70kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.25kg

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

Bantam 452

 

Cock

10

680g

 

C

Hen

12

570g

 

B

Cockerel

14

680g

 

C

Pullet

16

570g

 

B

 

The Campine (pronounced kam-peen) originated in the northern part of Belgium around Antwerp. It is closely related to the Brakel (also Belgium), Chaamse Hoen (The Nertherlands) and Hergines fowl (northern France). Most Campine males bred in Belgium before 1900 had normal cock feathering, although hen-feathered males appeared occasionally. The difference between Brakels an Campines then was in build and weight, the Campines being slimmer.

British poultry expert Edward Brown wrote about Campines in 1897, soon leading to the first importation by Thomas Braken of Lancaster.  A Campine Club was formed in Britain about 1900. The Club members had heard about the hen-feathered males, but did not have any at first. They were keen to adopt them as their standard male to avoid the complications of double mating experienced by breeders of Penciled Hamburghs. The first hen-feathered male in the UK, a silver from eggs imported from Belgium, won at several shows in 1904. Sons of this bird spread around club members, some of whom crossed them with gold females to produce hen-feathered gold males by 1911. Rosecombed Campines briefly appeared in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Campine bantams have appeared from time to time since the 1950’s.

 

 

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BRAKEL

 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Belgium

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White (Non-Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

Large 204

 

Cock

10

3.20kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.75kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.70kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.20kg

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

Bantam 450

 

Cock

10

800g

 

C

Hen

12

700g

 

B

Cockerel

14

800g

 

C

Pullet

16

700g

 

B

 

Brakel is a village near the market town of Aalst/Alost, north-west of Brussels in Belgium. The Brakel fowl was once kept on almost every farm and smallholding in its home area, and was generally more important in Belgium than the neighbouring breed, the Campine, which became better known in other countries. Brakel males, which have normal cock feathering are easily distinguished from the hen-feathered Campine males. The females of both breeds are very similar, but Brakel hens are heavier and stockier.

 

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ARAUCANA RUMPLESS

 

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRY of ORIGIN:Chile

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Blue or green (Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

262

 

Cock

10

3.0kg

 

D

Hen

12

2.5kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

3.0kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.5kg

 

C              

 

BANTAMS

 

 

546

 

Cock

10

850g

 

C

Hen

12

750g

 

B

Cockerel

14

850g

 

C

Pullet

16

750g

 

B

 

The Rumpless Araucana also has its origins in South America.  It was introduced to Europe by Professor S. Castello in the early 1920’s. The ear-tufts of feathers are unique to the breed in that they grow from a fleshy pad adjacent to the ear-lobe. Rumpless Araucanas lay a large egg in relation to body size and are as productive as the tailed Araucanas.

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WELSUMMER

 

 

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Holland

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Brown to deep brown (Non-Sitters)

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

298

 

Cock

10

3.2kg

 

E

Hen

12

2.7kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

2.7kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2.3kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

530

 

Cock

10

1000g

 

C

Hen

12

  800g

 

B

Cockerel

14

1000g

 

C

Pullet

16

  800g

 

B

 

 

Named after the village of Welsum, this Dutch breed has in its make‑up such breeds as the Partridge Cochin, Partridge Wyandotte and Partridge Leghorn, and still later the Barnevelder and the Rhode Island Red. In 1928, stock was imported into England from Holland, in particular for its large brown egg, which remains its special feature, some products being mottled with brown spots. It has distinctive markings and colour, and comes into the light breed category, although it has good body size. It enters the medium size class in the country of origin. Judges and breeders work to a standard that values indications of productiveness, so that laying merits can be combined with beauty.

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VENDA

 

 

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Country of Origin: South Africa

Category: Soft feather

Egg Colour: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

294

 

Cock

10

3.0kg

 

E

Hen

12

2.5kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.0kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2.5kg

 

D

 

 

The original Venda fowl was discovered in the Venda area of the Limpopo Province in the year 1979 by Dr Naas Coetzee, Government Veterinary Surgeon of Bloemfontein. The basic colours of the fowls are similar to the indigenous cattle and goats, namely black, white and brown. Dr Coetzee was highly impressed by the bird’s quality of egg production, self-sustainment, resistance against diseases, low need for food and broodiness. Although similar chickens were later identified in the Southern Cape and the Qua-Qua region of the Free State, the name derived from the original description has been retained.

 

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SPANISH WHITE FACE

 

 

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AREA OF ORIGIN:  Mediterranean

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR:  White (Non-Sitters)

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

292

 

Cock

10

3.2kg

 

E

Hen

12

2.7kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.2kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2.7kg

 

D

 

BANTAMS

 

 

518

 

Cock

10

1000g

 

C

Hen

12

  800g

 

B

Cockerel

14

1000g

 

C

Pullet

16

  800g

 

B

 

 

The white-faced black Spanish is one of our oldest breeds, and was widely kept and admired long before the advent of poultry shows in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Of striking appearance, with its extensive white face, surrounding eyes and ears and extending lower than the wattles. The Spanish was also a good layer of large white eggs. The emergence of the red-faced Minorca pushed the Spanish into the background, but they still appear occasionally at shows.

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RUMPLESS PERSIAN

 

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AREA OF ORIGIN: Persia

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: White, sometimes tinted

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

 

 

Bantam

 

 

602

 

Cock

10

620 to 740g

 

B

Hen

12

510 to 620g

 

A

Cockerel

14

620 to 740g

 

B

Pullet

16

510 to 620g

 

A

 

 

 

 

This breed of bantam was known to Aldrovandus over three and a half centuries ago and he called it the Persian fowl.  They were bred in many colour patterns, mostly clean legged and single combed.  The cocks should have true saddle feathers, the hen true cushion feathers.  In both sexes being curled over backwards, giving a rather peculiar appearance.  There must be a complete absence of the caudal projection, (pygostle bone) irreverently named as the Parson’s nose, and from which the tail grows, in both cock and hen.  They may be shown in various shaped combs, however, the single comb is the most popular and which is hereinafter described.

The Rumpless is sometimes known as Persian fowls. Feather-legged varieties of Rumpless have been shown under the name Barbu d’ Grubbe and Ruhlaer Rumpless.

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RHODE ISLAND

 

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AREA OF ORIGIN: America

CATEGORY: Soft feather

EGG COLOUR: Light brown to dark brown (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

248

 

Cock

10

4.0kg

 

F

Hen

12