Hard Feather Breeds

PHOENIX

 Phoenix 102 (Small)

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AREA of ORIGIN:  Japanese, Chinese and German

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

178

 

Cock

10

2,0 to 2,5kg

 

D

Hen

12

1,5 to 2,0kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2,0 to 2,5kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1,5 to 2,0kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

398

 

Cock

10

850 to 950g

 

C

Hen

12

750 to 850g

 

B

Cockerel

14

850 to 950g

 

C

Pullet

16

750 to 850g

 

B

 

There are two strains of large Phoenix fowl, namely:

(a) The Onagadori, which literary means O = tail, naga = long, dori = fowl  (longtail fowl).

(b)The Shokoku.

The large Phoenix – Onagadori originated more than one thousand years ago and is the product of both Japanese and Chinese breeders. The origin of the Phoenix – Shokoku also goes back to ancient Chinese and Japanese breeders during the Heian dynasty (794 – 1186 AD).

The phoenix – Onagadori is protected by very strict laws enforced by the Japanese Governments’ Department for Nature Conservation and it is not allowed to be exported from Japan. The Phoenix – Shokoku however, is the strain of the large Phoenix seen on the show benches worldwide, and is described in this Standard.

The first Phoenix – Shokoku fowls were imported into Germany in 1873 and later some specimens arrived in England where they received the name of Yokohama. The Yokohama is only related to the Phoenix in as far as it also belongs to the so-called long-tail class of poultry.

The most outstanding characteristic of the Phoenix is its long flowing tail. The tail of the Onagadori can reach lengths of 6 metre and even longer, and it never moults. The tail of the Shokoku reach lengths of between 1,5 and two metres in older cocks. So far scientists have been unable to isolate the gene responsible for the abnormal tail growth, but it is believed that there is a direct connection between the tail growth and the sexual hormones. In order to obtain the maximum length of tail, cocks should be confined in rather small cages and should never be exposed to hens.

 

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SUMATRA

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AREA of ORIGIN:  Asia

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  White (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION   

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

182

 

Cock

10

2,0kg minimum

 

D

Hen

12

1,5kg minimum

 

C

Cockerel

14

2,0kg minimum

 

D

Pullet

16

1,5kg minimum

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

402

 

Cock

10

1,0kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

0,9kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1,0kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

0,9kg maximum

 

B

 

The Black Sumatra is an ancient and primitive breed reputed to be one of the best fliers in chickendom, having flown over 8 km on prevailing winds from the Indonesian island of Sumatra to the island of Java. The inhabitants of these islands kept these birds solely for cockfighting. The breed was first imported to the United States in 1847 from Sumatra. In 1883 the Sumatra Game was admitted to the American Standard under the name of the Black Sumatra.

 

  

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CHU SHAMO

 

 

 

 

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Origin: Japan

Category:  Hard feather

Egg colour: White or tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

159

 

Cock

10

3.0 – 4.0kg

 

F

Hen

12

2.3 – 3.0kg

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.0 – 4.0kg

 

F

Pullet

16

2.3 – 3.0kg

 

E

 

The Chu Shamo is a Japanese bird of Malayoid type, originally imported to Japan from Thailand in the seventeenth century – the name being a corruption of Siam, the old name for Thailand. In Japan it was developed into a fighting bird of unmatched courage and ferocity. Its feathers are sparse but strong and shiny, and its powerful bone structure and well-muscled body and legs, coupled with its erect posture, make it an impressive and striking bird. Since its importation in the early 1970s the term ‘Shamo’ has covered all large fowl, but in Japanese classification, birds are divided into O (large) Shamo, Chu (medium) Shamo and Nankin Shamo the smallest.

 

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ABOUT CHICKENS (GF)

 

LARGE AND BANTAM BREEDS.

 

( Gallus gallus, SUBSPECIE Domestica)

 

 

Fowls belong to the species Gallus gallus. The modern domesticated fowl descends from the wild jungle fowl of India (Bankiva).

 

 

The Jungle Fowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The earliest reference to domesticated fowl is found in Chinese writings from the time of Emperor Fu-Hsi, 3341 to 3227 BC. On his voyage around the southern tip of Africa in 1497, the navigator, Vasco da Gama, already found fowl with the indigenous people in Natal. Marco Polo, in his writings, made mention of the fowl with “cat like feathers” (Silkies) that he found in China.

 

There are hundreds of breeds and varieties that have been developed over many years in most parts of the world. They vary in size from the massive Jersey Giants of America to the tiniest ornate little bantam.

 

Not only are these breeds kept for pleasure and exhibition purposes, but through careful selection and development, many modern strains of fowl have been developed to provide a very vital form of protein in the form of eggs and meat.

 

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MADRAS GAME

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AREA of ORIGIN:  South India

CATEGORY:  Hard Feather

EGG COLOUR:  Cream  or Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy Breed

 

 

170

 

Cock

10

4.1kg  minimum

 

F

Hen

12

2.7kg  minimum

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.4kg  minimum

 

F

Pullet

16

2.3kg  minimum

 

E

 

The Madras Asil belongs to the group of Asil Kulang. The first  Madras Asil  has been introduced in England in 1870 (Source: “New Book of Poultry” – Lewis Wright – 1902) by R. Gordon, an unidentified ship captain from Glasgow (Scotland). Lewis Wright stated that the “Blue Madras” originate from the city of Madras (South India). After a few years the Madras Asil vanished from England. The reason being that they were very aggressive and difficult to maintain. The “Blue Madras”  again appeared in 1968 in the former East Germany. These birds were originally bred by Paul Hohmann and were cross bred with Vietnamese fighters bred by Franz den Hagen. The Madras Asil was standardized and 1970. The breed name changed to “Madras Fighters” in 1971. The population had been expanded with Great Asil  (Origin: South India) obtained from the Berlin Zoo. The Madras is very large and muscular. (Madras is called Chennai in India).   

 

 

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KULANG GAME

               

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COUNTRIES of ORIGIN: India and Pakistan

CATEGORY: Hard feather.

EGG COLOUR White or tinted.

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Large Fowl

 

 

168

 

 

Cock

10

3.5kg minimum

 

F

Hen

12

2.5kg minimum

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.5kg minimum

 

F

Pullet

16

2.5kg minimum

 

E

 

The Kulang Asil is an Indian bird of Malayoid type, kept and fought in its country of origin for hundreds of years.

As Indian and Pakistani people migrated to Britain they brought these birds with them, and they have been kept here now for many years. The standard is intended to preserve the original type, which does vary from area to area.

Their general appearance is very Shamo-like, the major differences being a rather less exaggeratedly upright stance and less prominent shoulders, and their development having been in India rather than the Shamo’s development in Japan.

 

 

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SATSUMADORI GAME

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:  Japan

CATEGORY:  Hard Feather

EGG COLOUR:  White or Tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Large Fowl

 

 

142

 

 

Cock

10

3.0 – 4.0kg

 

E

Hen

12

2.3 – 3.5kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

3.0 – 4.0kg

 

D

Pullet

16

2.3 – 3.5kg

 

E

 

The Satsumadori is a very stylish, flashy Japanese Gamebird developed in Kagoshima (formerly known as Satsuma) on the island of Kyushu. Bred originally for steel spur fighting, this is a powerful , agile bird, with tremendous presence.

 

 

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CORNISH GAME

               

 

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COUNTRIES ORIGIN:  England and America

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Brown (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

160

 

Cock

10

3,5 to 5,0kg

 

G

Hen

12

3,0 to 4,0kg

 

F

Cockerel

14

3,0 to 4,0kg

 

G

Pullet

16

2,5 to 3,5kg

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

388

 

Cock

10

1,8kg maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1,4kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1,8kg maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1,4kg maximum

 

C

 

The Cornish fowl originated in Cornwall, U.K. It is a composite of several different blood lines ( Aseel, black red Old English Game and Malay Game.) A distinguishing characteristic of the Cornish is that the body of both male and female are of the same conformation. The texture of the feathers is another strong characteristic in the breed. The body plumage should be close fitting, the feathers short, hard and quite narrow, the well-knitted webs giving brilliancy to the colour pigments. White Cornish were produced in the USA from White Malay/Dark Indian crosses in 1890 and were admitted to the American Standard in 1898. White Cornish Game is often used in cross breeding’s for excellent fast growing broiler chicks in South Africa and abroad.  It is a very valuable breed for production purposes.

Note: In many countries the Cornish Game and the Indian Game are seen as one breed.

 

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AMERICAN GAME

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN: England

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

150

 

 

Cock

10

2.4-2.7kg

 

C

Hen

12

1.8-2.4kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.4-2.7kg

 

C

Pullet

16

1.8-2.4kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

380

 

Cock

10

800g-1.2kg

 

B

Hen

12

640g- 960g

 

A

Cockerel

14

640g- 960g

 

B

Pullet

16

580g- 870g

 

A

 

Over the many years that Game Cocks have been fought in America a particular breed evolved being a mixture of Old English Game, Irish Game, Spanish Game and the Oriental infusion of Aseel and Shamo Game completed  this genetic soup. Because of the different Spur styles, Slashers (knives), Short heel or the Long Heel the Fighting Cock we see today is the result of the years of selection for fighting style and gameness;   obviously constitution, strength and cutting ability must be of utmost importance and today on the show bench these birds can and must be judged with this in mind. The American Game should have strong contraction of wings and thigh. Feathers should be tight over entire body, producing an overall hardness of feathers, which is characteristic of the breed.

 

 

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BELGIAN GAME (Bruges Type)

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN: Belgium

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Cream

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

154

 

Cock

10

5.0kg

 

D

Hen

12

4.0kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

4.0kg

 

D

Pullet

16

3.5kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

384

 

Cock

10

1,8kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1,4kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1,8kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1,4kg maximum

 

B

 

For centuries game fowl were bred in the West-Flanders region and the North of France for cock fighting. Only in 1858 the name ‘Bruges game’ or ‘Northern game’ were mentioned. The first breed standard dates back to 1908. There are three Belgian game fowl breeds – Bruges, Liege and the Flemish Game.

At the end of the nineteenth century cockers in the Liege Region probably crossed the Liegeois with a Malay or Asian heavy breed to make an even better fighter and thus created the Bruges Blues Game. (Ref CA Finsterbush – “Cock fighting all over the world” page 324). Their colour is Andalusian blue, slate or any other shade of grey. They are preferably bred blue, very heavy and large and though profusely feathered are fairly Oriental in features.

Compared to other game fowl, the hens of the Bruges game are very good layers. They produce about 150 cream-shelled eggs per year. In older hens the eggs may even weigh as much as 70 grams. Brooding occurs rarely. Besides an impressive number of eggs, the Bruges also produces a large quantity of  fine and tasty meat. One must remember that some bloodlines still tend to be aggressive so both sexes are best raised separately. Once the order is settled in a group, Bruges game are docile birds which can become very tame if they are paid enough attention to.

Only at the end of the seventies serious attempts were made to breed bantam versions of the large Belgian Game Fowl Breeds. Bantams grow a lot quicker and start laying at much younger age than that of the large fowl. The hens brood very easily and they are good mothers.

In Belgian Game special attention should be paid to type, carriage and size which are of more importance than colour and markings.

 

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BELGIAN GAME (Liege Type)

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:  Belgium

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Cream

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

156

 

Cock

10

5.0kg

 

D

Hen

12

4.0kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

4.0kg

 

D

Pullet

16

3.5kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

386

 

Cock

10

1,8kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1,4kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1,8kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

1,4kg maximum

 

B

 

This breed is somewhat larger and sluggish when compared to the Flemish Game. They are too slow for anything but naked heels. Their size alone would be an attraction, and besides they are quite easy to keep and rear.

Compared to other game fowl, the hens of the Liège Game are very good layers. They produce about 150 cream-shelled eggs per year. In older hens the eggs may even weigh as much as 70 grams. Brooding occurs rarely. Besides an impressive number of eggs, the Liège also produces a large quantity of very fine and tasty meat.

 

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CUBALAYA GAME

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:  Cuba

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Dark brown

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

162

 

 

Cock

10

2.0-3.3kg

 

D

Hen

12

1.6-2.4kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.4-2.2kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1.0-1.7kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

390

 

Cock

10

1.1kg-1.3kg

 

C

Hen

12

0.9kg- 1.1kg

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.1kg-1.3kg

 

C

Pullet

16

0.9kg- 1.1kg

 

B

 

Cubalayas originated in Cuba where they are very extensively bred. They are an oriental game breed and are traced back to birds coming from the Orient, most probably from the Philippine Islands. Stately carriage, short beaks, broad, short heads, with a fierce appearance, a well spread tail and the uninterrupted line from base of neck to end of tail are typical characteristics of the breed. They are of medium size and striking in appearance.     

 

 

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OHIKI

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:  Japan

CATEGORY:  Hard Feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION              CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

True Bantam

 

 

428

 

Cock

10

0.7 – 1.1kg

 

B

Hen

12

0.5 – 0.9kg

 

A

Cockerel

14

0.7 – 1.1kg

 

B

Pullet

16

0.5 – 0.9kg

 

A

 

Developed in the Kochi Prefecture on the southern Japanese island of Shikoku in the mid-nineteenth century from crosses (details unknown) between long-tailed breeds and small bantams such as Japanese (Chabo) or others of roughly Pekin type.  They are a short-legged bantam with a rounded body, old cocks having extraordinary long tail feathers which drag along the ground.  Their name translates : 0= small, hiki=dragging.  Not bred in the UK until the 1990s.

 

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RUMPLESS GAME

 

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ORIGIN: Great Britain

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: White, sometimes tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

180

 

Cock

10

2,3 – 2,7 kg

 

D

Hen

12

1,8 – 2,3 kg

 

C

Stag

14

2,3 – 2,7 kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1,8 – 2,3 kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

434

 

Cock

10

620 – 740 g

 

C

Hen

12

510 – 620 g

 

B

Stag

14

620 – 740 g

 

C

Pullet

16

510 – 620 g

 

B

 

As is common with any rumpless breed, the parson’s nose or ’Caudal Appendage’ (uropygium) is missing. Foreign breeds like the Barbu d’Anvers has a rumpless version called Barbu du Grube. The Barbu d’Uccle has the Barbu d’Everberg as its rumplesss version and, even in Japan, there is a Rumpless Yokohama, funny though it may sound, with its long saddle hackle making it feasible. A genetic accident with Old English Game many years ago probably created our own Rumpless Game. The breed though not popular in the bantam form is often seen in large fowl.

 

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SHAMO GAME

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN: Japan

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: White or tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Asian Heavy Breed

 

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

144

 

 

Cock

10

3.0kg – 4kg

 

F

Hen

12

2.3kg – 3kg

 

E

Cockerel

14

3.0kg – 4kg

 

F

Pullet

16

2.3kg – 3kg

 

E

 

The Shamo is a Japanese bird of Malayoid type, originally imported to Japan from Thailand in the seventeenth century – the name being a corruption of Siam, the old name for Thailand. In Japan it was developed into a fighting bird of unmatched courage and ferocity. Its feathers are sparse but strong and shiny, and its powerful bone structure and well-muscled body and legs, coupled with its erect posture, make it an impressive and striking bird. Since its importation in the early 1970s the term ‘Shamo’ has covered all large fowl, but in Japanese classification, birds are divided into Chu (medium) Shamo and O (large) Shamo.

 

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x

SPANISH GAME

 

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN: Spain

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: Pure White or Delicate Pink (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION             CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

400

 

Cock

10

1,5    2,00kg

 

C

Hen

12

1,0    1,75kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

1,5    2,00kg

 

C

Pullet

16

1,0    1,75kg

 

C

 

The origin of the Spanish Game Fowl is unknown. As far as historical evidences have a bearing on the subject, the Phoenicians are the probable introducers of these game fowl to Western Europe. They show a strong leaning to the old type Persian or Bankiva bird both in type and fighting value. The Spanish being a supreme fighting breed seldom surpassed.

 

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THAI GAME

 

 

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COUNTRY of ORIGIN:Thailand

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:White or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy Breed

 

 

404

 

 

Cock

10

2,8 to 4,2kg

 

E

Hen

12

2,0 to 3,0kg

 

D

Cockerel

14

2,8 to 4,2kg

 

E

Pullet

16

2,0 to 3,0kg

 

D

 

Thai Game is a large game breed of Malayoid type, kept and fought in its country of origin – Thailand. The standard is intended to preserve this original type. Their general appearance is very Shamo-like, the major differences being lighter build, a less exaggeratedly upright stance, less prominent shoulders, and a characteristically full tail carried slightly above horizontal.

 

 

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TUZO GAME

               

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ORIGIN:  Japan

CATEGORY:  Hard Feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

True Bantam

 

 

404

 

 

Cock

10

1.25kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

1.12kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1.10kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

 0.90kg maximum

 

B

 

The Tuzo is a true hard feather game bantam from Japan. It has been in Great Britain since the early 1970s and is still in a few hands. It is not unlike a bantam Aseel.

 

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YAKIDO

 

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ORIGIN: Japan

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  White or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

184

 

 

Cock

10

2.6kg maximum

 

D

Hen

12

2.1kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.2kg maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

 1.9kg maximum

 

C

 

The Yakido is a small Shamo variety that was created around 1850 (the Tokugawa period) in the Mie province. The breed is of Shamo type, but comes below the Chu Shamo in weight, and is shown as a bantam. It was bred originally as a sparring partner for the bigger birds.

 

  

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YOKOHAMA

 

 

        

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COUNTRIES of ORIGIN:  Japan and Germany

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

186

 

Cock

10

1.8 to 2.5kg

 

D

Hen

12

1.2 to 1.8kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.8 to 2.5kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1.2 to 1.8kg

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

408

 

Cock

10

800g

 

C

Hen

12

700g

 

B

Cockerel

14

750g

 

C

Pullet

16

600g

 

B

 

The large Yokohama fowl originated in Japan. They were exclusively bred for tail qualities and little is known about the bloodlines that went into the making of this breed. It is, however, almost sure that Malay Game Fowls played a dominant role in the shaping and making of the Yokohama. The first birds were imported into Europe (Germany) in around 1870 where they were freely crossed with the Phoenix and Shamo Game. The bantam variety was a purely German breed product. The Yokohama, like the Phoenix and the Sumatra Game, belong to the game and long tail breeds.

 

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CHIBI SHAMO

 

 

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Origin: Japan

Category: Hard Feather.

Egg colour:  White or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION       CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

True Bantams

 

 

422

 

Cock

10

1,4kg maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1,2kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1,4kg maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1,2kg maximum

 

C

 

The Chibi Shamo is an ancient ornamental breed, and the aim is to be as thick-set, exaggerated and full of character as possible within the weight limits. The main feature is a very heavily wrinkled face, which gets more and more grotesque with age.The Yamato is the largest of the small Shamo breeds, and could be considered an intermediate size and with the Chibi Shamo being its bantam equivalent. Chibi means small in Japanese.

 

 

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OLD ENGLISH GAME

 

 

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ORIGIN:   Britain                                                                     

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

176

 

Cock

10

1.8 to 2.5kg

 

C

Hen

12

1.4 to 1.8kg

 

C

Stag

14

1.8 to 2.5kg

 

C

Pullet

16

1.4 to 1.8kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

430

 

Cock

10

850g maximum

 

A

Hen

12

750g maximum

 

A

Stag

14

800g maximum

 

A

Pullet

16

700g maximum

 

A

 

When the Romans invaded Britain, Julius Caesar wrote in his commentaries that the Britons kept fowls for pleasure and diversion but not for table purposes. Many well-known authorities have considered that cock-fighting was the diversion. In 1849 an Act of the British Parliament was passed making cock-fighting illegal in that country, and with poultry exhibitions then taking root, many breeders began to exhibit Game fowls. Over thirty colours of Old English Game have been known. The Old English Game Club split in about 1930 as there was already a divergence of birds being shown with larger breasted, horizontally backed, exhibition type birds tending to win. Breeders of these formed the Carlisle Club, developing only some of the original colours. Breeders of the original type, wherein the back is at 45º to the ground, maintained the well-balanced, close heeled, athletic fighting fowl, and formed the Oxford Club, retaining over thirty colours.

 

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NANKIN SHAMO

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Origin: Japan

Category: Hard feather

Egg colour:  White or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION      CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

 

 

BANTAMS

 

 

426

 

Cock

10

1.3kg Maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1.1kg Maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.3kg Maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1.1kg Maximum

 

C

 

The Shamo is a Japanese bird of Malayoid type, originally imported to Japan from Thailand in the seventeenth century – the name being a corruption of Siam, the old name for Thailand. In Japan it was developed into a fighting bird of unmatched courage and ferocity. Its feathers are sparse but strong and shiny, and its powerful bone structure and well-muscled body and legs, coupled with its erect posture, make it an impressive and striking bird. Since its importation in the early 1970s the term ‘Shamo’ has covered all large fowl, but in Japanese classification, birds are divided into O (large) Shamo, Chu (medium) Shamo and Nankin Shamo the smallest.

 

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TAIWAN

 

 

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Origin:  Taiwan

Category:  Hard feather.

Egg colour:  White or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION

CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Asian Heavy Breed

 

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

164

 

 

Cock

10

5.0kg minimum

 

G

Hen

12

4.0kg minimum

 

F

Cockerel

14

4.0kg minimum

 

G

Pullet

16

3.0kg minimum

 

F

 

BANTAMS

 

 

392

 

Cock

10

1,7kg maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1,5kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1,7kg maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1,5kg maximum

 

C

 

The Taiwan is a very large bird of Malayoid type. The breed is sometimes called Taiwan Shamo, but as this is not a Japanese breed that name is incorrect. The breed’s origins are in the island of Taiwan (formerly Formosa)It is of a similar type to the Shamo, but generally bigger and heavier with longer legs.

There is a tendency in Europe to call any unidentifiable big Asian Game breed ‘Taiwan’, and these birds are often clumsy and of poor carriage. Birds of similar type have been called ‘Saipan’ in USA, also ‘Chinese Shamo’. The true breed is an impressive, strong, agile, upright bird.

 

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INDIAN GAME

 

 

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ORIGIN:  Britain

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted.

 

CLASSIFICATION      CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

164

 

Cock

10

3,6 kg minimum

 

G

Hen

12

2,7 kg minimum

 

E

Cockerel

14

3,6 kg minimum

 

G

Pullet

16

2,7 kg minimum

 

E

 

BANTAMS

 

 

392

 

Cock

10

1.8kg maximum

 

D

Hen

12

1.4kg maximum

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.8kg maximum

 

D

Pullet

16

1.4kg maximum

 

C

 

To Cornwall must go the credit for giving us the Indian Game Breeds. Used in the make-up were the red Aseel, black-breasted red Old English Game, and the Malay. The breed has been developed for its abundant quantity of breast meat, in which respect no other breed can equal it. When large table birds were the most popular in Britain Indian Game males were chosen as mates for females of such table breeds as the Sussex, Dorking and Orpington, to produce extra large crosses. The females chosen for mating belonged  to breeds possessing white flesh and shanks. Jubilee Indian Game are similar to Indians, but the lacing is white; in Indians it is black. The two varieties are often interbred.

 

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NATAL GAME

 

 

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ORIGIN: South Africa

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION  CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

174

 

Cock

10

4.1kg minimum

 

G

Hen

12

2.7kg minimum

 

F

Cockerel

14

3.4kg minimum

 

G

Pullet

16

2.3kg minimum

 

F

 

This interesting breed originated in Natal but no definite information on the breeds used is available. In a sworn affidavit, dated the 24th June 1954, Mr Allan L Hope of Richmond, Natal states that he has bred true Natal Games since 1910 without the introduction of any other Game fowl blood. Admitted to the S.A. Standard in April 1956.

 

 

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KO- SHAMO


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ORIGIN: Japan

CATEGORY: Hard feather.

EGG COLOUR:  Cream or tinted

 

CLASSIFICATION       CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

BANTAMS

 

 

424

 

Cock

10

1,2kg maximum

 

C

Hen

12

0,9kg maximum

 

B

Cockerel

14

1,0kg maximum

 

C

Pullet

16

0,8kg maximum

 

B

 

In Japan Ko-Shamo are the most popular of the “Small Shamo” breeds. Other breeds of this group are Kimpa, Nankin-Shamo, Yakido and Yamato-Gunkei. Ko-Shamo have very scanty plumage and muscular build.  The aim is to have as much character as possible within the weight limits.

 

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ASEEL GAME

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AREA of ORIGIN: Asia

CATEGORY: Hard feather

EGG COLOUR: Tinted (Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION            CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

152

 

Cock

10

1.8 – 2.7kg

 

D

Hen

12

1.3 – 2.3kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

1.8 – 2.7kg

 

D

Pullet

16

1.3 – 2.3kg

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

382

 

Cock

10

0.9 – 1.4kg

 

D

Hen

12

0.7 – 1.1kg

 

C

Cockerel

14

0.9 – 1.4kg

 

D

Pullet

16

0.7 – 1.1kg

 

C

 

This is the oldest pure game breed of domestic poultry.  A wonderful example of a fowl bred for one purpose – fighting. The most intelligent of breeds and a delight as a pet.  They are alluded to in the codes of Manu, an Indian work on sacred laws, religion and philosophy, written about the fifth century B.C.  Some give the date as 900 B.C. while others say 1280 B.C. A very ancient breed. Aseels are usually quiet to handle and never vicious, they love being petted. The name Aseel comes from Arabic and means “of long pedigree”. This style of fighting produced a muscular and powerful bird with a strong beak, thick, muscular neck and powerful legs and thighs and very pugnacious. The female has the same characteristics and is a poor layer but a very good mother. This standard refers to the small Aseel (often called ‘Reza’ Asil, which term actually applies only to birds of 1,6–1,8kg, or ‘Rajah’ Asil – which is a term not used at all in India).The Aseel is probably the oldest known breed of game-fowl, having been bred in India for its fighting qualities for over 2000 years. In different dialects it can be spelled ‘Asil’, ‘Aseel’ or ‘Asli’. In its native land the Aseel was bred to fight, not with false spurs, but rather with its natural spurs covered with tape, the fight being a trial of strength and endurance. Such was the fitness, durability and gameness of the contestants that individual battles could last for days. The Aseel has always attracted a few dedicated admirers prepared to cope with its inborn desire to fight.

 

 

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CARLISLE GAME

 

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Origin: Great Britain

Category:: Hard feather

Egg Colour: Tinted

 

 

CLASSIFICATION  CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Light Breed

 

 

 

 

LARGE

 

 

158

 

Cock

10

2.9kg minimum

 

C

Hen

12

2.5kg minimum

 

C

Cockerel

14

2.9kg minimum

 

C

Pullet

16

2.5kg minimum

 

C

 

BANTAMS

 

 

420

 

Cock

10

850g maximum

 

A

Hen

12

740g maximum

 

A

Cockerel

14

850g maximum

 

A

Pullet

16

740g maximum

 

A

 

In the UK in 1849 an Act of Parliament was passed making cock fighting illegal in Britain, with poultry exhibitions then taking root, many breeders began to exhibit Game fowls.In the UK in about 1930 the Old English Game Club split as there was already a divergence of birds being shown with larger breasted, horizontally backed, exhibition type birds tending to win, and breeders of these formed the Carlisle Club. Breeders of the original type, wherein the back is at 45° to the ground, maintained the well-balanced, close heeled, athletic fighting fowl, and formed the Oxford Club. The judge of Oxfords does so with the bird facing away from him to assess balance. It is usually agreed that a good game fowl cannot be a bad colour.

 

In South Africa poor judging of Old English Game (OEG) fowl through the years resulted in departure from the true Oxford Old English Game type pit fowl by adding and exaggerating them with almost non-functional physical exaggerations that the birds did not originally possess. All this just for the show bench where it is to be looked at. This scenario also evolved in Australia and the USA. The Carlisle is a good example of how judges misguide exhibitors by losing focus on the (pit fowl) features and destroy a breed. The Oxford Old English Game was developed into a show fowl that deviates a lot from the original standard. This impact has been so great that not even the Carlisle has kept abreast with it’s breed standard. An example of this is the rather short feathered tail. The Carlisle Show Game is not capable of acquitting itself in the pit. It is an insult referring to the Carlisle Show Game as an “Old English Game”. It would be more correct to refer to it as Carlisle Game as for Modern Game and Indian Game.

 

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MALAY GAME

 

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AREA of ORIGIN:  East and South East Asia.

CATEGORY:  Hard feather

EGG COLOUR:  Tinted.(Sitters)

 

CLASSIFICATION    CODE

MASSES

BREED CODE

RING SIZES

Heavy breed<